THE B TO Z OF PLANT NUTRITION: BORON

Have you seen these funky cavities in brocolli and carrots? When I first noticed such hollow stems, I was surprised to learn that they were not the work of an artistic worm, but signs of a deficiency in a mineral called boron.

Despite its name, poor boron deserves our respect and attention. You may already be using boron in the form of borax, the cleaning detergent, or boron supplements for bone health.

In plants, boron controls flowering, pollination, fruit-to-flower ratio, and the transfer of sugars from leaves to roots to feed beneficial soil microbes. Besides hollow stems, misshapen fruit, die-back of growing tips, flower and fruit drop, and poor seed set are all clues of boron deficiency. Tip: It’s helpful to supply boron to plants immediately before flowering to increase flowers and fruits.

In plants, animals and humans, boron improves the uptake of the all-important calcium. Without boron, calcium cannot be properly absorbed into our bones, hence boron deficiency is strongly linked to osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. It is striking that boron deficiency shows up in the same way in plants, animals and people – as hollow stems/bones.

If boron is not in the food that we eat, it doesn’t get into our bodies. Feed your edible plants well to feed your bodies well. Boron is in Diglings LUSH liquid nutrition. Giving LUSH to your plants is an insurance that your plants get all the essential minerals that they need for healthy growth and reproduction.

Next, we will look at the all-important calcium.

RITUALS OF HOPE

We are entering 2022 under dark clouds. What gives you light in times of darkness?

Some years ago, I abandoned the idea of New Year resolutions (because I usually forgot or forsook them come March), and started to think more about rhythms and rituals. I realise that the one ritual that I have automatically performed, year after year, is the sowing of seeds on the first week of the new year. By this time, the garden beds would have been rested and regenerated over November and December to coincide with the monsoon, and would be ready for a new growing season.

This week, I am sowing butternut squash, French beans, tomatoes, coriander, and a variety of leafy salads – favourites that are lovely to see and lovely to eat. To sow is to wonder at the mystery of life. How does a seed as small and dead as the full stop before this sentence, puts forth new limbs, one that arches for the sun and another that sinks into the soil, and in a matter of days and weeks, transforms into a lively creature totally unrecognisable from the dot that it started from? To sow is to remember that there is a larger power at work in this world that turns seeds to plants to food, that raises the sun every morning even behind dark clouds, and that provides for our human sustenance through seeds and sun. I can’t think of a more hopeful ritual to mark the new year.

What are your rituals of hope?

“The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overcome it” (John 1:5)

Lessons from Goldilocks: How to choose plants for your weather, and how to create weather for your plants

When Goldilocks invited herself into the home of the three bears, she helped herself to their porridge. She found the first bowl too hot, the second bowl too cold, and the third bowl just right.

What have Goldilocks and porridge got to do with gardening? Stephen Hawking said, “Like Goldilocks, the development of intelligent life requires that planetary temperatures be ‘just right'”. Well, the Goldilocks Rule applies to plant life in the garden too.

With the year-round tropical heat in Malaysia, it’s never too cold and almost always too hot. Most of the internet gardening advice caters to gardeners in temperate climate, and therefore, needs to be, well, tempered with our local reality. For example, we may see advice to grow lettuce and tomato in full-day sun. But if we do that in our weather, our lettuce will bolt (go to seed) very quickly and taste bitter, and our tomatoes, particularly heirloom varieties that are not tolerant to our heat, may wilt.

Our rain is also different. We don’t get spring showers, instead, we get tropical thunderstorms that hammer tender greens to shreds and turn them into a damp, rotting mash. This is why we see many vegetable farmers growing their crops under rain shelters.

Therefore, the first step in starting a food garden is to choose plants that match the weather in our garden. Does your garden get morning, afternoon or full-day sun? Take a few days to observe the sun, and take note of how the sun direction and duration change over the course of the year. Over the years of growing many types of herbs and veggies, I have worked out the following guidelines:

Types of Herbs & VeggiesBest Grown In
Stir-fry leafy greens e.g. spinach, choy sum, pak choy, cabbage.Half-day sun.
Salad greens e.g. lettuce, arugula.
Tender herbs e.g. coriander, dill.
Morning sun, protected from heavy rain.
Sun-loving tropical herbs e.g. Thai basil, lemongrass, chives.Half-day to full-day sun.
Shade-loving tropical herbs e.g. ginger including turmeric, bunga kantan.Partial shade to half-day sun.
Mediterranean herbs e.g. rosemary, thyme, sage, oregano, Italian basil.Half-day to full-day sun, protected from heavy rain.
Heat-tolerant fruiting veggies e.g. okra, brinjal, chilli, pumpkin.Half-day to full-day sun.
Less heat-tolerant fruiting veggies e.g. tomato, heirloom fruits from temperate climate.Morning sun.

What’s your experience as a tropical food gardener? How would you add to the list above? I would love to hear your experience in the comments below.

What if we don’t have the ideal conditions for the plants that we want to grow? How do we tropical gardeners make our garden not too hot and not too wet, but just right for the food plants that we want to grow?

While we can’t control the weather, we can create microclimates or small pockets of gentler weather for our more tender plants. For example, I can’t bear to put up big rain shelters in my garden, but I have small sections with transparent perspex roofs that let in sunlight yet protect my seedlings, tender greens, and dry-loving Mediterranean herbs, from lashing rains.

For plants that hate getting their feet wet like chillies and Mediterranean herbs, I control the soil moisture by growing them in containers.

To buffer the heat of cloudless days, we grow hedges and fruit trees at the edges of our garden. This green barrier also serves as a wind-breaker. For cooling effect, we are growing real grass, instead of paving over with tiles or fake grass, although weeding the lawn gives us grief. Growing hedges, trees and grass also increases beneficial soil life and wildlife in our garden.

Excessive heat, water and wind cause stress to plants, making them weak and prone to pest and diseases. In this age of climate change, when we can expect weather extremes to become more common, creating microclimates with natural or man-made structures becomes a necessity.

Look around your house and see if you can find pockets of morning sun, afternoon sun, and full-day sun, to match the different sun requirements of the plants that you want to grow. Consider if you need to modify a hot pocket with a shade cloth that cuts out some sunlight, or take advantage of a strip under your house roof for rain protection, or create a wind-breaker with some shrubs or bamboo sticks. We can be creative in making these structures practical as well as aesthetically pleasing.

The “just right” conditions for our plants thankfully fall into a range rather than a rigid number. As I advocate tempering and testing internet gardening advice with your own local observation and experience, I urge you to do the same with my guidelines. Our own garden becomes our best teacher when we pay attention. A camera and a journal are wonderful learning tools in the garden.

“To pay attention, this is our endless and proper work.”
― Mary Oliver

Diglings Lush Starter Kit: How to grow leafy greens

Are you a new edible gardener, or want to be one, or know one? Our Lush Starter Kit is a tried-and-tested starter kit to inspire a new food gardener to begin a life-changing journey, and more importantly, to stick to it.

The Diglings Lush Starter Kit @ RM99 per set contains:

Here are my step-by-step tips on how to grow the included bayam (amaranth) seeds from seed to harvest. Bayam is a great leafy vegetable for a beginner or busy gardener because it is fast to germinate, pretty to see, hardy to pests, and so versatile in a salad, stir-fry or soup. If you have seeds of other leafy greens, the following tips also apply.


One bag of 15-litre Diglings Light Potting Mix fills one medium grow pouch. Place pouch where it gets 1/2 day of direct sunlight, and is protected from heavy rain. In each pouch, scatter 1/2 teaspoon of bayam seeds on soil surface. Then sprinkle just enough soil to cover seeds. Do not bury seeds.


Water soil surface until it is moist but not soggy. Keep seeds always moist until germination – never let them dry out.


Within 4 days, seeds germinate, each with a pair of seed leaves.


In 10 days, leaves that appear after seed leaves are the true leaves, which are the leaves that we will eat. After this, the plants will grow quickly and visibly by centimetres every day! Rate of growth depends on amount of sunlight, water and nutrients, so your growth rate may vary from mine.


After true leaves appear, once a week, drench diluted Lush on plants as if you are watering the plants. To dilute, mix 2 ml of Lush in 1 litre of water in a watering can (1:500). Yes, that’s all you need! Lush is that potent and economical. Follow this simple schedule for drenching:
Week 1 – Lush One
Week 2 – Lush Too
Week 3 – Lush One
Week 4 – Lush Too
Repeat weekly.

Learn more on using Lush Set.


In 18 days, we can start harvesting or we can let the bayam grow bigger. On the left is the sharp-leaf green bayam, which is melt-in-your-mouth tender when stir-fried or cooked in soups. On the right is the pretty rounder-leaf green and red bayam.


Day 23 after starting seeds. I am going to harvest the bigger, taller leaves while they are nice and tender to eat. This will allow smaller leaves below to get more sun and space to grow bigger.


I harvest a bouquet of leaves. There is enough left growing in the pouches for a few more meals.


Day 27. Within days after the first harvest, the smaller leaves have sprung up!

Day 32. I harvest the second round. There are still lots of leaves left in the pouches for more meals.


Day 40. After four harvests, I pull out all the bayam by the roots as the plants are starting to get old and tough. I add all plant residue to my compost. Roots have grown right to the bottom outer side of grow pouch. Due to the airy nature of the fabric, the pouches promote better root growth compared to regular pots.

The Diglings Lush Starter Kit @ RM99 per set contains: